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Axum was a programming language developed by Microsoft for use in parallel computing. The language, aimed to ensure safety and isolation of concurrent computations, made its debut in 2009 as part of the Microsoft Robotics Developer Studio R3 suite. Axum’s syntax integrated elements promoting safe parallel programming such as asynchronous message-passing operations (channels), first-class functions (agents), and isolation units. Despite being discontinued, the concepts introduced by Axum have influenced other programming languages and frameworks designed to facilitate parallel computing while mitigating common errors that can occur in multi-threaded systems such as deadlocks and race conditions.