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Fortran (Formula Translation) is a domain-specific, high-level programming language for numerical and scientific computing. Designed for performing complex mathematical operations, it was one of the first successful high-level languages. Originally developed in the 1950s, it has undergone several revisions with versions such as Fortran IV, Fortran 77, Fortran 90/95, Fortran 2003/08 and more recent iterations. The language features array processing and arithmetic expressions that can be evaluated at compile time rather than at runtime. It remains widely used in academia and industry due to its performance advantage over general-purpose languages in many scientific calculations when properly optimized for modern hardware architectures.

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