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JPA (Java Persistence API)

The Java Persistence API (JPA) is a specification in the Java programming language for managing relational data from within Java applications. As part of the Java EE 5 platform, JPA provides an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) framework that allows developers to interact with databases using object-oriented approaches. JPA standardizes how ORM tools should interact with database systems, reducing the coupling between application code and persistence mechanisms. By annotating Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs), developers can map these objects to database tables without writing complex SQL queries or schema-specific code. JPA supports inheritance mapping strategies, associations between entities, and lifecycle callback methods which can be triggered upon entity state changes—making it easier to implement and maintain data access logic in enterprise systems.

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