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Prolog is a programming language used in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It's based on first-order logic and has a formal syntax for defining relations between objects. Prolog's defining feature is its use of automated reasoning to solve problems. The language operates through the process of resolution, which searches for solutions by unifying predicates in queries with those defined in the program’s knowledge base (or database). Prolog can be used to create expert systems, natural language parsers, and rule-based systems due to its ability to represent real-world scenarios logically.