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Snowball is a domain-specific programming language used for stemming. It was created in 1968 by Martin Porter to improve information retrieval tasks by reducing words to their base or root forms, which can then be indexed and searched more efficiently. Snowball provides an algorithmic approach to stemming that allows users to define custom rules without having to delve into complex programming concepts. The language's name refers to the cascading effect of the stemming rules, where the output of one rule can become input for subsequent rules until no further changes are possible. While it’s not as widely used today in comparison with other languages, Snowball has had a significant influence on subsequent work in text processing and computational linguistics.