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Ceylon is a modern, modular programming language for writing large programs in teams. The language was designed by Gavin King and the Red Hat team, and first released in 2011. Ceylon runs on existing Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and JavaScript runtimes, making it interoperable with programs written in those languages without manual integration work. Its syntax is inspired by Java but has its own unique features that simplify complex coding tasks while remaining understandable for most programmers coming from a background in Java or C#. Ceylon emphasizes readability of code, strong typing (with both static and dynamic constructs), immutability by default to prevent unintended side effects, pattern matching for concise conditionals, an expressive type system with union and intersection types, declaratively defined hierarchies using interfaces and classes separately from their implementations to avoid exposing implementation details prematurely outside of modules, asynchronous I/O operations through its underlying platform support lets the developer write non-blocking code without callbacks or additional threads being directly managed by the programmer.