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Multilisp

MultiLisp is an extension of the Lisp programming language that supports parallel processing. It was developed as part of the ILISP project at MIT in 1984 by Hal Abelson, David K. Gifford and Daniel J. Weinreb as an attempt to make it easier to write parallel programs without having to deal with low-level details of concurrency. MultiLisp introduces constructs for managing shared memory between processes and synchronizing their execution, while maintaining Lisp's functional nature by promoting single-assignment variables (immutable data) whenever possible. The language's automatic parallelism features include spawning new processes using the future primitive — a form of lazy evaluation that evaluates expressions in separate threads if needed — and higher-order operations tailored for concurrent list processing, such as mapreduce-like forms for distributed data manipulation across a collection of processors.

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