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R is an open-source programming language and software environment used for statistical computing and graphics. The language is widely used among statisticians and data miners as it provides a variety of statistical techniques, including linear and nonlinear modeling, time-series analysis, classification, clustering. R can be extended through packages that are available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN). These packages incorporate functionalities such as machine learning algorithms which enable deep exploration of datasets. Its syntax encourages experimentation with complex operations on large data sets while its visualization tools allow users to create publication-quality charts and plots.