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Refal is a functional programming language for symbolic manipulation. It was developed in the Soviet Union in the late 1960s by Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics and was extensively used for academic research and some specialized real-world applications, particularly in the Russian-speaking world. Refal supports recursive functions without explicit recursion, pattern-matching constructs, object-oriented programming mechanisms, and efficient algorithm specifications that allow it to solve complex tasks with ease. The language has seen limited international uptake when compared to other popular programming languages but continues to be used within specific domains due to its power in handling string processing problems efficiently.