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SQL (Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language for managing data held in a relational database management system. The language provides a standardized way of querying and manipulating databases. Its syntax resembles English, making it easy to write queries for fetching or updating data across tables within the same database or between different databases. SQL also provides functionalities such as joining multiple tables, aggregating functions, inserting new records into the database, updating existing rows, and deleting unwanted entries. It has evolved over time to include additional features like stored procedures, triggers, user-defined functions, transactions handling with the ACID properties (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability), and more advanced capabilities for working with complex data structures in modern databases.